Flower

The flower is the distinctive reproductive structure of Angiosperms. The term “flower” is often used when a part of the reproductive structure is distinct in form and colour.

Flowers offer an almost limitless array of options regarding their colour, size and form. There are many sizes, from tiny blossoms to large blooms. Like magnolias, tulips and poppies, some flowers are large and showy. However, in others, such as snapdragon and lilac, the individual flowers can be small and borne in a unique cluster called an inflorescence. No matter how many flowers there are, they all have the same function: the reproduction of the species by producing seeds.

Types and form

The basic structure of each flower is a floral axis, which carries the essential organs for reproduction ( stamenspistils), and sometimes the accessory organs (sepals or petals). These organs may be used to attract pollinating insects and protect them. The floral stem is a modified stem. Unlike vegetative stems, which have left, it is often contracted so that all the flower parts are placed on the stem tips, the receptacle. The arrangement of the flower parts is usually in whorls or cycles, but they can also be placed spirally if the axis has an elongate shape. There are generally four distinct groups of flower parts:

  1. The outer calyx is composed of sepals.
  2. The Columba is made up of petals.
  3. And the androecium.
  4. The Gynoecium contains pistils.

Together, the perianth or floral envelope is made up of the sepals and petals. The petals are often bright and colourful, and the sepals look a lot like reduced leaves. Tepals are also used to refer to petals and sepals that are not distinguishable, such as tulips and lilies. The androecium, the male part of the flower, consists of stamens. Each of these consists of an anther and a supporting filament, where pollen is produced. The gynoecium or female part of the flower is composed of one or several pistils. Each ovary has an upright extension. This style contains the stigma, which is the pollen-receptive area. The ovules or potential seeds are enclosed in the ovary. A pistil can be simple and consist of one carpel or an ovule-bearing, modified leaf; or a compound made from multiple carpels that have been joined together.

A flower with sepals and petals, stamens, and pistils is full. If it lacks one or more of these structures, it’s incomplete. All flowers have pistils and stamens. Perfect flowers have both stamens and pistils. Pistillate is a flower without stamens. A flower with no pistils is called a staminate. If the same plants bear unisexual flowers, it is called monoecious.

A flower with sepals and petals, stamens, and pistils is full. If it lacks one or more of these structures, it’s incomplete. All flowers have pistils and stamens. Perfect flowers have both stamens and pistils. Pistillate is a flower without stamens. A flower with no pistils is called a staminate. If the same plants bear unisexual flowers, it is called monoecious.

A flower can be radially symmetrical ( photograph), or it may be regular or acting. An irregular or zygomorphic flower is bilaterally symmetrical, such as orchids ( photograph) and snapdragons.

Pollination

The production of seeds is directly affected by the stamens and pistils. The stamen contains microsporangia, which contains many microspores. These pollen seeds are then produced in spore cases. The pistil also bears ovules that each contains an egg cell. A pollen grain is a microspore that germinates. When they are ready to be released, the anther releases the pollen sacs from a stamen’s another; the pollen is shed. Fertilization is possible only if pollen grains from the anther are transferred to the pistil’s stigma. This process is known as Pollination.

There are two main types of Pollination. (1) self–pollination is the Pollination by pollen from a single flower, or another plant’s flower; and (2) Cross-pollination is the transfer of pollen between the anther of one flower and the stigma of another flower of the same species. Self-pollination occurs in many species, but in the others, perhaps the majority, it is prevented by such adaptations as the structure of the flower, self-incompatibility, and the maturation of stamens and pistils of the same flower or plant at different times. Many factors can cause cross-pollination, most notably insects and wind. The most obvious way to recognize wind-pollinated flowers is their lack of colour, odour or nectar. Animal-pollinated plants (see photo) can be easily identified by their structure, colour or production of scent or honey.

A pollen grain germinates once it has reached the stigma. The tube contains two male gametes (sperms). It reaches the egg cell and displaces its gametes. One fertilizes the egg cell and creates an embryo. The other joins two polar nuclei to make the endosperm. (Normally, many pollen grains are placed on a stigma. They may all germinate, but only one pollen tube can enter anyone’s ovule. After fertilization, the embryo becomes a seed, and the ovary expands to produce the fruit.

Cultural significance

In most civilizations, flowers have been a symbol of beauty. Flower giving is one of the most common social amenities. Flowers can be used as gifts and expressions to show affection for spouses and family members; at weddings and other ceremonies as decorations; for respecting the deceased; for cheering up the sick; or as expressions of thanks or appreciation. The majority of flowers purchased by the public were grown in commercial greenhouses and horticultural fields. They are then sold to wholesalers to florists. You can also see articles about individual flowers, such as carnation, lotus flower; petunia rose; tulip.

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